INFOR­MA­TION | COM­MU­NI­CA­TION | COLLABORATION

Global African Heritage

A

Afghanistan: 0.018%
Alba­nia: 3.155%
Alge­ria: 98%
Amer­i­can Samoa: 0.149%
Andorra: 0.012%
Angola: 98.649%
Anguilla: 90.08%
Antigua and Bar­buda: 92%
Argentina: 0.124%
Arme­nia: 0.002%
Aruba: 24.038%
Aus­tralia: 1.399%
Aus­tria: 0.12%
Azer­bai­jan: 0.012%



B
Bahamas: 85%
Bahrain: 15%
Bangladesh: 0.315%
Bar­ba­dos: 90%
Belarus: 0.001%
Bel­gium: 0.703%
Belize: 31.25%
Benin: 96.926%
Bermuda: 61.538%
Bhutan: 0.008%
Bolivia: 1.155%
Bosnia and Herze­gov­ina: 0.003%
Botswana: 95.643%
Brazil: 45.26%
British Vir­gin Islands: 86.957%
Brunei: 0.1%
Bul­garia: 0.001%
Burk­ina Faso: 93.156%
Burundi: 97.675%



C
Cam­bo­dia: 0.007%
Cameroon: 98.161%
Canada: 2.995%
Cape Verde: 68%
Cay­man Islands: 63.83%
Cen­tral African Repub­lic: 98.8%
Chad: 88%
Chile: 0.119%
China: 0.008%
Colom­bia: 21.308%
Comoros: 90.909%
Congo-​Brazzaville: 92.887%
Cook Islands: 0.99%
Costa Rica: 3.133%
Côte d’Ivoire: 85.94%
Croa­tia: 0.002%
Cuba: 62%
Cyprus: 0.629%
Czech Repub­lic: 0.005%



D
Demo­c­ra­tic Repub­lic of the Congo: 98.091%
Den­mark: 0.547%
Dji­bouti: 96.478%
Dominica: 93%
Domini­can Repub­lic: 84%


E

East Timor: 0.009%
Ecuador: 3%
Egypt: 99.6%
El Sal­vador: 0.012%
Equa­to­r­ial Guinea: 97.81%
Eritrea: 98.659%
Esto­nia: 0.007%
Ethiopia: 98.261%


F

Falk­land Islands: 0.333%
Faroe Islands: 0.205%
Fiji: 1.208%
Fin­land: 0.019%
France: 9.306%
French Guiana: 66%
French Poly­ne­sia: 0.385%


G

Gabon: 81.3%
Gam­bia: 83.71%
Geor­gia: 0.023%
Ger­many: 0.73%
Ghana: 91.452%
Gibral­tar: 5%
Greece: 0.27%
Green­land: 0.017%
Grenada: 95%
Guade­loupe: 92%
Guam: 0.006%
Guatemala: 2%
Guernsey: 0.152%
Guinea: 94.682%
Guinea-​Bissau: 99.5%
Guyana: 36%


H

Haiti: 97.5%
Hon­duras: 2%
Hong Kong: 0.036%
Hun­gary: 0.01%


I

Ice­land: 0.031%
India: 2.5%
Indone­sia: 0.002%
Iran: 0.001%
Iraq: 0.034%
Ire­land: 0.226%
Isle of Man: 0.125%
Israel: 25.2%
Italy: 1.3%


J

Jamaica: 97.4%
Japan: 0.004%
Jer­sey: 0.112%
Jor­dan: 0.017%


K

Kaza­khstan: 0.001%
Kenya: 97.993%
Kiri­bati: 1.053%
Kuwait: 2%
Kyr­gyzs­tan: 0.002%


L

Laos: 0.017%
Latvia: 0.004%
Lebanon: 0.098%
Lesotho: 98.666%
Liberia: 97.477%
Libya: 97%
Liecht­en­stein: 2.828%
Lithua­nia: 0.003%
Lux­em­bourg: 0.207%


M

Macau: 0.186%
Mace­do­nia: 0.049%
Mada­gas­car: 98.661%
Malawi: 96.835%
Malaysia: 5%
Mal­dives: 3%
Mali: 98.66%
Malta: 0.024%
Mar­shall Islands: 0.017%
Mar­tinique: 72%
Mau­ri­ta­nia: 96.849%
Mau­ri­tius: 97%
May­otte: 91%
Mex­ico: 1.09%
Microne­sia: 0.901%
Moldova: 0.003%
Monaco: 0.303%
Mon­go­lia: 0.004%
Mon­tene­gro: 0.017%
Montser­rat: 65%
Morocco: 99%
Mozam­bique: 96.949%
Myan­mar: 0.01%


N

Namibia: 91.959%
Nauru: 1%
Nepal: 0%
Nether­lands: 1.823%
Nether­lands Antilles: 85%
New Cale­do­nia: 0.041%
New Zealand: 0.023%
Nicaragua: 9%
Niger: 98.112%
Nige­ria: 98.262%
Niue: 0.063%
North Korea: 0%
North­ern Mar­i­ana Islands: 0.119%
Nor­way: 0.021%


O

Oman: 8%


P

Pak­istan: 4.5%
Palau: 0.5%
Pales­tine: 2.33%
Panama: 14%
Papua New Guinea: 94.772%
Paraguay: 0.1%
Peru: 3%
Philip­pines: 0.01%
Pit­cairn Islands: 2%
Poland: 0.02%
Por­tu­gal: 2%
Puerto Rico: 8%




Q

Qatar: 0.9%


R

Réu­nion: 68%
Roma­nia: 0.005%
Rus­sia: 0.014%
Rwanda: 97.661%


S

Saint Helena: 50%
Saint Kitts and Nevis: 98%
Saint Lucia: 82.5%
Saint Vin­cent and the Grenadines: 85%
Saint-​Barthélemy: 27.4%
Saint-​Martin: 53.5%
Saint-​Pierre and Miquelon: 0.163%
Samoa: 0.53%
San Marino: 0.032%
São Tomé and Príncipe: 93.8%
Saudi Ara­bia: 10%
Sene­gal: 96.204%
Ser­bia: 0.001%
Sey­chelles: 94%
Sierra Leone: 96.846%
Sin­ga­pore: 0.022%
Slo­va­kia: 0.002%
Slove­nia: 0.005%
Solomon Islands: 0.02%
Soma­lia: 95.573%
Soma­liland: 99%
South Africa: 98.6%
South Korea: 0.002%
Spain: 1.3%
Sri Lanka: 1.8%
Sudan: 97.273%
Suri­name: 47%
Swazi­land: 97%
Swe­den: 0.217%
Switzer­land: 0.327%
Syria: 0.1%


T

Tai­wan: 0.004%
Tajik­istan: 0.001%
Tan­za­nia: 96.934%
Thai­land: 0.002%
Togo: 96.022%
Toke­lau: 2.857%
Tonga: 10%
Trinidad and Tobago: 58%
Tunisia: 99.6%
Turkey: 4.25%
Turk­menistan: 0.002%
Turks and Caicos Islands: 34%
Tuvalu: 0.091%


U

U.S. Vir­gin Islands: 78%
Uganda: 97.124%
Ukraine: 0%
United Arab Emi­rates: 8.8%
United King­dom: 3%
United States of Amer­ica: 12.9%
Uruguay: 4%
Uzbek­istan: 0%


V

Van­u­atu: 0.044%
Vat­i­can City: 12.5%
Venezuela: 18.25%
Viet­nam: 0.1%


W

Wal­lis and Futuna: 0.667%
West­ern Sahara: 99%


X


Y

Yemen: 35%


Z

Zam­bia: 96.643%
Zim­babwe: 95.072%


AFRICANS IN

THE WORLD


Global: 34.227%


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Amer­i­can Samoan Val­ues and World Cul­tural Exchange

COUN­TRY OR TER­RI­TORY: Amer­i­can Samoa
HIS­TOR­I­CAL HEGE­MONIST: United States of Amer­ica
DATE OF INDE­PEN­DENCE:
LAN­GUAGE: Samoan, US Eng­lish
COUN­TRY POP­U­LA­TION: 67000
POP­U­LA­TION OF AFRICAN DESCENTS:

NTRO­DUC­TION

Amer­i­can Samoa/​Amerika Sāmoa; also Ame­lika Sāmoa or Sāmoa Ame­lika) is an unin­cor­po­rated ter­ri­tory of the United States located in the South Pacific Ocean, south­east of the sov­er­eign state of Samoa (for­merly known as West­ern Samoa). The main (largest and most pop­u­lous) island is Tutu­ila, with the Manuʻa Islands, Rose Atoll, and Swains Island also included in the territory.

Amer­i­can Samoa is part of the Samoan Islands chain, located west of the Cook Islands, north of Tonga, and some 300 miles (500 km) south of Toke­lau. To the west are the islands of the Wal­lis and Futuna group. The 2000 cen­sus showed a total pop­u­la­tion of 57,291 people.The total land area is 76.1 square miles (197.1 km2), slightly more than Wash­ing­ton, D.C. Amer­i­can Samoa is the south­ern­most ter­ri­tory of the United States.


RACIAL IDEN­TITY

The pop­u­la­tion of Amer­i­can Samoa stands at about 65,000 peo­ple, 95% of whom live on the largest island, Tutu­ila.

Of the pop­u­la­tion, 91.6 per­cent are nativeSamoans, 2.8% are Asian, 1.1% are Cau­casian, 4.2% are Mixed, and 0.3% are of other ori­gin. Samoan, a lan­guage closely related to Hawai­ian and other Poly­ne­sian lan­guages, is spo­ken by 90.6 per­cent of the peo­ple, while 2.9% speak Eng­lish, 2.4% speak Ton­gan, 2.1% speak other lan­guages, and 2% speak other Pacific islander lan­guages, with most peo­ple being bilin­gual. Amer­i­can Samoa is largelyChris­t­ian (50% Chris­t­ian Con­gre­ga­tion­al­ist, 20% Roman Catholic, 30% Protes­tant and other

ETH­NIC­ITY

The eth­nic cul­ture of Amer­i­can Samoa is almost the same as the eth­nic cul­ture of West­ern Samoa (Upolu). The U.S. sov­er­eignty dis­tin­guishes the civ­i­liza­tion of Amer­i­can Samoa from the sov­er­eign Samoa.

While the two Samoas share lan­guage and eth­nic­ity, their cul­tures have recently fol­lowed dif­fer­ent paths, with Amer­i­can Samoans often emi­grat­ing toHawaiʻi and the U.S. main­land, and adopt­ing many U.S. cus­toms, such as the play­ing of Amer­i­can foot­ball and base­ball. West­ern Samoans have tended to emi­grate instead to New Zealand, whose influ­ence has made the sports of rugby and cricket more pop­u­lar in the west­ern islands. Travel writerPaul Ther­oux noted that there were marked dif­fer­ences between the soci­eties in Samoa and Amer­i­can Samoa.

ATMOS­PHERE

Due to eco­nomic hard­ship, mil­i­tary ser­vice has been seen as an oppor­tu­nity in Amer­i­can Samoa and other U.S. Over­seas ter­ri­to­ries,[12] this has meant that based on pop­u­la­tion there have been a dis­pro­por­tion­ate num­ber of casu­al­ties per pop­u­la­tion com­pared to other parts of the United States. As of 23 March 2009 there have been 10 Amer­i­can Samoans who have died inIraq, and 2 who have died in Afghanistan.

Peo­ple born in Amer­i­can Samoa — includ­ing those born on Swains Island — are Amer­i­can nation­als, but are not Amer­i­can cit­i­zens unless one of their par­ents is a U.S. cit­i­zen. As U.S. nation­als, Amer­i­can Samoans may not vote in U.S. pres­i­den­tial elec­tions.How­ever, Amer­i­can Samoans are enti­tled to free and unre­stricted entry into the United States.

Samoans are enti­tled to elect one non-​voting del­e­gate to the United States House of Representatives.Their del­e­gate since 1989 has been Demo­c­ratEni Fa’aua’a Hunkin Fale­o­mavaega, Jr. They also send del­e­gates to theDemo­c­ra­tic and Repub­li­can National Conventions.

Employ­ment on the island falls into three rel­a­tively equal-​sized cat­e­gories of approx­i­mately 5,000 work­ers each: the pub­lic sec­tor, the sin­gle remain­ingtuna can­nery, and the rest of the pri­vate sector.

There are only a few fed­eral employ­ees in Amer­i­can Samoa and no active duty mil­i­tary per­son­nel except mem­bers of the U.S. Coast Guard, although there is an Army Reserve unit. There is also a U.S. Army recruit­ing sta­tion in Utulai.

The over­whelm­ing major­ity of pub­lic sec­tor employ­ees work for the Amer­i­can Samoa ter­ri­to­r­ial gov­ern­ment. The one tuna can­nery, StarK­ist, exports sev­eral hun­dred mil­lion dol­lars worth of canned tuna to the United States each year. The other tuna can­nery, Samoa Pack­ing, a Chicken of the Sea sub­sidiary, closed in 2009 due to Amer­i­can Samoans being granted min­i­mum wage.[29] In early 2007 the Samoan econ­omy was high­lighted in the Con­gress as it was not men­tioned in the min­i­mum wage bill, at the request of the Samoan del­e­gate to the United States House of Rep­re­sen­ta­tives, Eni Fale­o­mavaega.[clar­i­fi­ca­tion needed]

From 2002 to 2007, real GDP of Amer­i­can Samoa increased at an aver­age annual rate of 0.4 per­cent. The annual growth rates of real GDP ranged from –2.9 per­cent to +2.1 per­cent. The volatil­ity in the growth rates of real GDP was pri­mar­ily accounted for by changes in the exports of canned tuna. The tuna can­ning indus­try was the largest pri­vate employer in Amer­i­can Samoa dur­ing this period.

HIS­TOR­I­CAL BACKGROUND

18th cen­tury – first West­ern contact

Samoa Islands Map 1896.

Con­tact with Euro­peans began in the early 18th cen­tury. Jacob Roggeveen (16591729), a Dutch­man, was the first known Euro­pean to sight the Samoan islands in 1722. This visit was fol­lowed by the French explorerLouis-​Antoine de Bougainville(17291811), who named them the Nav­i­ga­tor Islands in 1768. Con­tact was lim­ited before the 1830s which is when Eng­lishmis­sion­ar­ies and traders began arriving.

Early West­ern con­tact included a bat­tle in the eigh­teenth cen­tury between French explor­ers and islanders in Tutu­ila, for which the Samoans were blamed in the West, giv­ing them a rep­u­ta­tion for feroc­ity. The site of this bat­tle is called Mas­sacre Bay.


19th century

Mis­sion work in the Samoas had begun in late 1830 by John Williams, of theLon­don Mis­sion­ary Soci­ety arrived from The Cook Islands and Tahiti.[3] By that time, the Samoans had gained a rep­u­ta­tion of being sav­age and war­like, as vio­lent alter­ca­tions had occurred between natives and French, British, Ger­man, and Amer­i­can forces, who, by the late nine­teenth cen­tury, val­uedPago Pago Har­bor as a refu­el­ing sta­tion for coal-​fired ship­ping and whaling.


20th century

Ger­man, British and Amer­i­can war­ships in Apia har­bour, Samoa 1899.

In March 1889, a Ger­man naval force invaded a vil­lage in Samoa, and by doing so destroyed some Amer­i­can prop­erty. Three Amer­i­can war­ships then entered the Apia har­bor and pre­pared to engage three Ger­man war­ships found there. Before guns were fired, a typhoon wrecked both the Amer­i­can and Ger­man ships. A com­pul­sory armistice was called because of the lack of warships.

At the turn of the twen­ti­eth cen­tury, inter­na­tional rival­ries in the lat­ter half of the cen­tury were set­tled by the 1899 Tri­par­tite Con­ven­tion in which Ger­many and the United States par­ti­tioned the Samoan Islands into two parts:[5] the east­ern island group became a ter­ri­tory of the United States (the Tutu­ila Islands in 1900 and offi­cially Manu’a in 1904) and is today known as Amer­i­can Samoa; the west­ern islands, by far the greater land­mass, became known as Ger­man Samoa after Britain vacated all claims to Samoa and accepted ter­mi­na­tion of Ger­man rights in Tonga and cer­tain areas in the Solomon Islands and West Africa.[6] Fore­run­ners to the Tri­par­tite Con­ven­tion of 1899 were the Wash­ing­ton Con­fer­ence of 1887, the Treaty of Berlin of 1889 and the Anglo-​German Agree­ment on Samoa of 1899.

[edit]A U.S. ter­ri­tory is b

18th cen­tury – first West­ern contact

Samoa Islands Map 1896.

Con­tact with Euro­peans began in the early 18th cen­tury. Jacob Roggeveen (16591729), a Dutch­man, was the first known Euro­pean to sight the Samoan islands in 1722. This visit was fol­lowed by the French explorerLouis-​Antoine de Bougainville(17291811), who named them the Nav­i­ga­tor Islands in 1768. Con­tact was lim­ited before the 1830s which is when Eng­lishmis­sion­ar­ies and traders began arriving.

Early West­ern con­tact included a bat­tle in the eigh­teenth cen­tury between French explor­ers and islanders in Tutu­ila, for which the Samoans were blamed in the West, giv­ing them a rep­u­ta­tion for feroc­ity. The site of this bat­tle is called Mas­sacre Bay.

[edit]19th cen­tury

Mis­sion work in the Samoas had begun in late 1830 by John Williams, of theLon­don Mis­sion­ary Soci­ety arrived from The Cook Islands and Tahiti.[3] By that time, the Samoans had gained a rep­u­ta­tion of being sav­age and war­like, as vio­lent alter­ca­tions had occurred between natives and French, British, Ger­man, and Amer­i­can forces, who, by the late nine­teenth cen­tury, val­uedPago Pago Har­bor as a refu­el­ing sta­tion for coal-​fired ship­ping and whaling.

[edit]20th cen­tury

Ger­man, British and Amer­i­can war­ships in Apia har­bour, Samoa 1899.

In March 1889, a Ger­man naval force invaded a vil­lage in Samoa, and by doing so destroyed some Amer­i­can prop­erty. Three Amer­i­can war­ships then entered the Apia har­bor and pre­pared to engage three Ger­man war­ships found there.[4] Before guns were fired, a typhoon wrecked both the Amer­i­can and Ger­man ships. A com­pul­sory armistice was called because of the lack of war­ships.[4]

At the turn of the twen­ti­eth cen­tury, inter­na­tional rival­ries in the lat­ter half of the cen­tury were set­tled by the 1899 Tri­par­tite Con­ven­tion in which Ger­many and the United States par­ti­tioned the Samoan Islands into two parts:[5] the east­ern island group became a ter­ri­tory of the United States (the Tutu­ila Islands in 1900 and offi­cially Manu’a in 1904) and is today known as Amer­i­can Samoa; the west­ern islands, by far the greater land­mass, became known as Ger­man Samoa after Britain vacated all claims to Samoa and accepted ter­mi­na­tion of Ger­man rights in Tonga and cer­tain areas in the Solomon Islands and West Africa.[6] Fore­run­ners to the Tri­par­tite Con­ven­tion of 1899 were the Wash­ing­ton Con­fer­ence of 1887, the Treaty of Berlin of 1889 and the Anglo-​German Agree­ment on Samoa of 1899.

]A U.S. ter­ri­tory is born

Pago Pago har­bor today and inter-​island dock area.

The fol­low­ing year, the U.S. for­mally occu­pied its por­tion: a smaller group of east­ern islands, one of which sur­rounds the noted har­bor of Pago Pago. After theUnited States Navy took pos­ses­sion of east­ern Samoa on behalf of the United States, the exist­ing coal­ing sta­tion at Pago Pago Bay was expanded into a full naval sta­tion, known as United States Naval Sta­tion Tutu­ila under the com­mand of a com­man­dant. The Navy secured a Deed of Ces­sion of Tutu­ila in 1900 and a Deed of Ces­sion of Manuʻa in 1904. The last sov­er­eign of Manuʻa, the Tui Manuʻa Elisala, was forced to sign a Deed of Ces­sion ofManuʻa fol­low­ing a series of U.S. Naval tri­als, known as the “Trial of the Ipu”, in Pago Pago, Taʻu, and aboard a Pacific Squadron gun­boat.[7] The ter­ri­tory became known as the U.S. Naval Sta­tion Tutuila.

On July 17, 1911, the U.S. Naval Sta­tion Tutu­ila, which was com­posed of Tutu­ila, Aunu’u and Manu’a, was offi­cially renamed Amer­i­can Samoa.


The early cen­tury and WW I

After World War I, dur­ing the time of the Mau move­ment in West­ern Samoa(then a League of Nations man­date gov­erned by New Zealand), there was a cor­re­spond­ing Amer­i­can Samoa Mau move­ment, led by Lauaki Namu­lau­ulu Mamoe, a World War I vet­eran who was from Leone vil­lage. After meet­ings in the United States main­land, he was pre­vented from dis­em­bark­ing from the ship that brought him home to Amer­i­can Samoa and was not allowed to return because the Amer­i­can Samoa Mau move­ment was sup­pressed by the U.S. Navy. In 1930 the U.S. Con­gress sent a com­mit­tee to inves­ti­gate the sta­tus of Amer­i­can Samoa, led by Amer­i­cans who had had a part in the over­throw of the King­dom of Hawaii.


The Pacific War (WW II)

Dur­ing World War II, U.S. Marines in Samoa out­num­bered the local pop­u­la­tion, hav­ing a huge cul­tural influ­ence. Young Samoan men from the age of 14 and above were com­bat trained by U.S. mil­i­tary per­son­nel. Samoans served in var­i­ous capac­i­ties dur­ing World War II, includ­ing as com­bat­ants, med­ical per­son­nel, code per­son­nel, and ship repairmen.

After World War II, Organic Act 4500, a U.S. Depart­ment of Inte­rior–spon­sored attempt to incor­po­rate Amer­i­can Samoa, was defeated in Con­gress, pri­mar­ily through the efforts of Samoan chiefs, led by Tuia­sosopo Mar­i­ota. These chiefs’ efforts led to the cre­ation of a local leg­is­la­ture, theAmer­i­can Samoa Fono which meets in the vil­lage of Fagatogo, often con­sid­ered the territory’s de facto and de jure cap­i­tal (the United States regards Pago Pago as the offi­cial cap­i­tal of the territory).


The lat­ter cen­tury: 1951 to 1999

In time, the Navy-​appointed gov­er­nor was replaced by a locally elected one. Although tech­ni­cally con­sid­ered “unor­ga­nized” since the U.S. Con­gress has not passed an Organic Act for the ter­ri­tory, Amer­i­can Samoa is self-​governing under a con­sti­tu­tion that became effec­tive on July 1, 1967. The U.S. Ter­ri­tory of Amer­i­can Samoa is on the United Nations list of Non-​Self-​Governing Ter­ri­to­ries, a list­ing which is dis­puted by the ter­ri­to­r­ial gov­ern­ment offi­cials, who do con­sider them­selves to be self-​governing.

In July 1997, the West­ern Samoa’s con­sti­tu­tion was amended to change the name of the coun­try to Samoa.The U.S. ter­ri­tory of Amer­i­can Samoa protested the move, assert­ing that the change dimin­ished its own iden­tity. Amer­i­can Samoans still use the terms West­ern Samoa and West­ern Samoans to describe the inde­pen­dent State of Samoa and its inhabitants.

While the two Samoas share lan­guage and eth­nic­ity, their cul­tures have recently fol­lowed dif­fer­ent paths, with Amer­i­can Samoans often emi­grat­ing toHawaiʻi and the U.S. main­land, and adopt­ing many U.S. cus­toms, such as the play­ing of Amer­i­can foot­ball and base­ball. West­ern Samoans have tended to emi­grate instead to New Zealand, whose influ­ence has made the sports of rugby and cricket more pop­u­lar in the west­ern islands. Travel writerPaul Ther­oux noted that there were marked dif­fer­ences between the soci­eties in Samoa and Amer­i­can Samoa.


[edit]World Stage Events

[edit]Pan Amer­i­can and first Trans South Pacific flight

the Samoan Clipper.

In 1938, the noted avi­a­tor Ed Musick and his crew died on thePan Amer­i­can World Air­ways S-​42 Samoan Clip­per over Pago Pago, while on a sur­vey flight toAuck­land, New Zealand. Some­time after take-​off, the air­craft expe­ri­enced trou­ble, and Musick turned it back toward Pago Pago. While the crew began dump­ing fuel in prepa­ra­tion for an emer­gency land­ing, a spark in the fuel pump caused an explo­sion that tore the air­craft apart in mid-​air.


Apollo Space Pro­gram and Amer­i­can Samoa contribution

Loca­tions of Pacific Ocean splash­downs of Amer­i­can spacecraft.

Amer­i­can Samoa and Pago Pago Inter­na­tional Air­port had his­toric sig­nif­i­cance with the U.S. Apollo Pro­gram. The astro­naut crews of Apollo 10, 12, 13, 14, and 17were retrieved a few hun­dred miles from Pago Pago and trans­ported by heli­copter to the air­port prior to being flown to Hon­olulu on C-​141 Star­liftermil­i­tary aircraft.


Sep­tem­ber 2009 earth­quake and tsunami

Tonga Trench south of the Samoa Islands and north ofNew Zealand.

On Sep­tem­ber 29, 2009 at 17:48:11 UTC, an 8.1 mag­ni­tude earth­quake struck 120 miles (190 km) off the coast of Amer­i­can Samoa, fol­lowed by smaller after­shocks.[17] It was thelargest earth­quake of 2009. The quake occurred on the outer rise of the Kermadec-​Tonga Sub­duc­tion Zone. This is part of thePacific Ring of Fire, where tec­tonic plates in the Earth’s lithos­phere meet and earth­quakes and vol­canic activ­ity are com­mon. The quake struck 11.2 miles (18.0 km) below the ocean floor and gen­er­ated an onset­ting tsunami that killed more than 170 peo­ple in the Samoa Islands and Tonga. Four waves with heights from 15 feet (4.6 m) to 20 feet (6.1 m) high were reported to have reached up to one mile (1.6 km) inland on the island of Tutuila.

The Defense Logis­tics Agency (DSCP) worked with the Fed­eral Emer­gency Man­age­ment Agency (FEMA) to pro­vide 16’ x 16’ human­i­tar­ian tents to the dev­as­tated areas of Amer­i­can Samoa.



The Pacific War (WW II)

Dur­ing World War II, U.S. Marines in Samoa out­num­bered the local pop­u­la­tion, hav­ing a huge cul­tural influ­ence. Young Samoan men from the age of 14 and above were com­bat trained by U.S. mil­i­tary per­son­nel. Samoans served in var­i­ous capac­i­ties dur­ing World War II, includ­ing as com­bat­ants, med­ical per­son­nel, code per­son­nel, and ship repairmen.

After World War II, Organic Act 4500, a U.S. Depart­ment of Inte­rior–spon­sored attempt to incor­po­rate Amer­i­can Samoa, was defeated in Con­gress, pri­mar­ily through the efforts of Samoan chiefs, led by Tuia­sosopo Mar­i­ota.[10] These chiefs’ efforts led to the cre­ation of a local leg­is­la­ture, theAmer­i­can Samoa Fono which meets in the vil­lage of Fagatogo, often con­sid­ered the territory’s de facto and de jure cap­i­tal (the United States regards Pago Pago as the offi­cial cap­i­tal of the territory).


The lat­ter cen­tury: 1951 to 1999

In time, the Navy-​appointed gov­er­nor was replaced by a locally elected one. Although tech­ni­cally con­sid­ered “unor­ga­nized” since the U.S. Con­gress has not passed an Organic Act for the ter­ri­tory, Amer­i­can Samoa is self-​governing under a con­sti­tu­tion that became effec­tive on July 1, 1967. The U.S. Ter­ri­tory of Amer­i­can Samoa is on the United Nations list of Non-​Self-​Governing Ter­ri­to­ries, a list­ing which is dis­puted by the ter­ri­to­r­ial gov­ern­ment offi­cials, who do con­sider them­selves to be self-​governing.

In July 1997, the West­ern Samoa’s con­sti­tu­tion was amended to change the name of the coun­try to Samoa. The U.S. ter­ri­tory of Amer­i­can Samoa protested the move, assert­ing that the change dimin­ished its own iden­tity. Amer­i­can Samoans still use the terms West­ern Samoa and West­ern Samoans to describe the inde­pen­dent State of Samoa and its inhabitants.

While the two Samoas share lan­guage and eth­nic­ity, their cul­tures have recently fol­lowed dif­fer­ent paths, with Amer­i­can Samoans often emi­grat­ing toHawaiʻi and the U.S. main­land, and adopt­ing many U.S. cus­toms, such as the play­ing of Amer­i­can foot­ball and base­ball. West­ern Samoans have tended to emi­grate instead to New Zealand, whose influ­ence has made the sports of rugby and cricket more pop­u­lar in the west­ern islands. Travel writerPaul Ther­oux noted that there were marked dif­fer­ences between the soci­eties in Samoa and Amer­i­can Samoa.



CUL­TURAL RELA­TIONS WITH AFRICANS

The Amer­i­can Samoan national Rugby League team rep­re­sents the coun­try in inter­na­tional Rugby League. The team has com­peted in the 1988, 1992, 1998 & 2004 pacific cup com­pe­ti­tion. The team has also com­peted in the 2003 and 2004 world sev­ens qual­i­fiers in the 2005 World sev­ens. Amer­ica Samoa’s first match in inter­na­tional Rugby League was in 1988 pacific cup against Tonga, Tonga won the match 3814 which is still the biggest lost by a Amer­i­can Samoan side. Amer­i­can Samoa’s biggest win was in 2004 against New Cale­do­nia with the score end­ing at 626.

Amer­i­can Samoa get broad­cast of the National Rugby League in Aus­tralia on free-​to-​air tele­vi­sion.[47]

There is also a new move­ment which aims to set up a four team domes­tic com­pe­ti­tion in Amer­i­can Samoa.[48]

Pro­fes­sional wrestling

A num­ber of Amer­i­can Samoan ath­letes have been very vis­i­ble in box­ing, kick­box­ing, wrestling (see espe­cially Anoa’i fam­ily). World Wrestling Enter­tain­ment has employed many mem­bers from the Anoa’i fam­ily, most famously Dwayne “The Rock” John­son. Also in pro­fes­sional wrestling, a wrestler called Samoa Joe com­petes in Total Non­stop Action Wrestling.

Sumo wrestling

Some Samoan Sumo wrestlers, most famously Musashimaru and Kon­ishiki have reached the high­est rank of Ozeki and yokozuna. Despite the rel­a­tively small pop­u­la­tion of the islands many Samoans and peo­ple of Samoan descent have reached high ranks in many pro­fes­sional sports leagues.

Soc­cer

Amer­i­can Samoa’s national soc­cer team is one of the newest teams in the world, and is also noted for being the world’s weak­est. They lost to Aus­tralia 310 in a FIFA World Cup qual­i­fy­ing match on April 11, 2001, but on 22 Novem­ber 2011 they finally won their first ever game, beat­ing Tonga 21 in a FIFA World Cup qual­i­fier.[49] The appear­ance of Amer­i­can Samoa’s Jonny Saelua in the con­test “appar­ently became the first trans­gen­der player to com­pete on a World Cup stage.“[50]

Track and field

Track and field is not a pop­u­lar sport in Amer­i­can Samoa, but it hit the lime­light when they sent a 130kg sprinter, (Soge­lau Tuvalu) to com­pete in the men’s 100m of the IAAF World Cham­pi­onships at Daegu, South Korea, in August 2011. The 17-​year-​old fin­ished last in his pre­lim­i­nary rounds but clocked a per­sonal best 15.66 sec­onds despite run­ning into a head­wind of –0.9, sur­pris­ingly not the slow­est time in the world cham­pi­onships his­tory as the time is faster than 21.73 sec­onds set in 1997 by an injured Kim Collins who became the world cham­pion six years later.[51]. Tuvalu was actu­ally a shot put­ter but did not qual­ify for the shot­put event so instead com­peted in the 100m. He was said to have trained for 4 months for the 100m, though did not wear spikes, and instead wore shot put­ters smooth bot­tom shoes.

SOCIAL ISSUES

The Amer­i­can Samoan national Rugby League team rep­re­sents the coun­try in inter­na­tional Rugby League. The team has com­peted in the 1988, 1992, 1998 & 2004 pacific cup com­pe­ti­tion. The team has also com­peted in the 2003 and 2004 world sev­ens qual­i­fiers in the 2005 World sev­ens. Amer­ica Samoa’s first match in inter­na­tional Rugby League was in 1988 pacific cup against Tonga, Tonga won the match 3814 which is still the biggest lost by a Amer­i­can Samoan side. Amer­i­can Samoa’s biggest win was in 2004 against New Cale­do­nia with the score end­ing at 626.

Amer­i­can Samoa get broad­cast of the National Rugby League in Aus­tralia on free-​to-​air tele­vi­sion.[47]

There is also a new move­ment which aims to set up a four team domes­tic com­pe­ti­tion in Amer­i­can Samoa.[48]

Pro­fes­sional wrestling

A num­ber of Amer­i­can Samoan ath­letes have been very vis­i­ble in box­ing, kick­box­ing, wrestling (see espe­cially Anoa’i fam­ily). World Wrestling Enter­tain­ment has employed many mem­bers from the Anoa’i fam­ily, most famously Dwayne “The Rock” John­son. Also in pro­fes­sional wrestling, a wrestler called Samoa Joe com­petes in Total Non­stop Action Wrestling.

Sumo wrestling

Some Samoan Sumo wrestlers, most famously Musashimaru and Kon­ishiki have reached the high­est rank of Ozeki and yokozuna. Despite the rel­a­tively small pop­u­la­tion of the islands many Samoans and peo­ple of Samoan descent have reached high ranks in many pro­fes­sional sports leagues.

Soc­cer

Amer­i­can Samoa’s national soc­cer team is one of the newest teams in the world, and is also noted for being the world’s weak­est. They lost to Aus­tralia 310 in a FIFA World Cup qual­i­fy­ing match on April 11, 2001, but on 22 Novem­ber 2011 they finally won their first ever game, beat­ing Tonga 21 in a FIFA World Cup qual­i­fier.[49] The appear­ance of Amer­i­can Samoa’s Jonny Saelua in the con­test “appar­ently became the first trans­gen­der player to com­pete on a World Cup stage.“[50]

Track and field

Track and field is not a pop­u­lar sport in Amer­i­can Samoa, but it hit the lime­light when they sent a 130kg sprinter, (Soge­lau Tuvalu) to com­pete in the men’s 100m of the IAAF World Cham­pi­onships at Daegu, South Korea, in August 2011. The 17-​year-​old fin­ished last in his pre­lim­i­nary rounds but clocked a per­sonal best 15.66 sec­onds despite run­ning into a head­wind of –0.9, sur­pris­ingly not the slow­est time in the world cham­pi­onships his­tory as the time is faster than 21.73 sec­onds set in 1997 by an injured Kim Collins who became the world cham­pion six years later.[51]. Tuvalu was actu­ally a shot put­ter but did not qual­ify for the shot­put event so instead com­peted in the 100m. He was said to have trained for 4 months for the 100m, though did not wear spikes, and instead wore shot put­ters smooth bot­tom shoes.

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Library of Con­gress Fed­eral Research Divi­sion
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Eth­no­logue
Every cul­ture
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Her­itage Foun­da­tion
Wikipedia​.org

Sus­tain­able Devel­op­ment Indi­ca­tors for Amer­i­can Samoa in details:

The chang­ing pro­files of a soci­ety in this nation or ter­ri­tory are cap­tured through a host of vital sta­tis­ti­cal indi­ca­tors. African Views facil­i­tates these sta­tis­ti­cal indi­ca­tors for every­one to iden­tify, com­pare and express their agree­ment or dis­agree­ment about the rat­ings, as well as share your views on a host of national con­di­tions and issues. Your con­tri­bu­tion will go towards the col­lec­tive knowl­edge and wis­dom required to explore empir­i­cal from nor­ma­tive argu­ments, espe­cially those argu­ments that rely on hid­den or ques­tion­able principles.

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